Although researchers acknowledge that words and language we use are not a totally adequate channel for probing or communicating the full gamut of emotion and emotional experience, they can reveal interesting cultural differences. Language enables us to become conscious of and to seek to convey our thoughts and feelings. Societies and cultures differ in their depiction and description of different feelings and emotions. All languages have lexically encoded different scenarios or states involving feelings and emotions. The meanings of these words are language specific and may often not match across languages and cultures. For example, there is no direct German translation for the word innocent (unschuldig means, literally, “unguilty”). Likewise, there is no English equivalent of the Russian word toska, meaning something like “melancholy-cum-yearning.” The Portuguese word saudade has a similar but not identical meaning. The German word Schadenfreude means roughly “joy at somebody else’s misfortune.” The word upset, with its underlying metaphor of the upsetting of usual equilibrium (as in an upset vase), has no direct translation into other languages. Indeed, the very notion of feeling upset carries cultural baggage—the central concern being about losing balance, harmony, or control. Considering the dynamics of language and the emotions and meanings that words convey is important
— Batey, Mark (2012-03-12). Brand Meaning (Kindle Locations 755-765). Taylor & Francis.